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What does corruption look like?

Global corruption through a photo lense

Corruption is the abuse of entrusted power for private gain, often involving fraud and bribery.

More than 6 billion people live in countries with a serious corruption problem, according to Transparency International.

However, corruption also transcends boundaries – appearing in many forms, often as a gateway to other crimes.

Its impact is felt across economies, politics and the environment. From the food we eat to the air we breathe, it can have far-reaching repercussions.

These images shed light on how an invisible ill like corruption can affect lives everywhere.

Disclaimer: This gallery contains graphic images that some may find disturbing.

Savar building collapse

People rescue a garment worker who was trapped under the rubble of the collapsed Rana Plaza building in Savar, 30 km (19 miles) outside Dhaka April 24, 2013.
A stack of clothes is seen at a garment factory near the collapsed Rana Plaza building in Savar People rescue garment workers trapped under rubble at the Rana Plaza building after it collapsed, in Savar

The collapse of Rana Plaza, built on swampy ground outside the capital Dhaka, killed 1,135 workers, many of them making garments for Western retailers.

A former chief engineer of the state-run Capital Development Authority said the owner had not received proper consent for the building, and that an extra three stories were added illegally.

The disaster ranks amongst the world’s worst industrial accidents, and sparked calls for safety improvements in the world’s second-largest exporter of ready-made garments.

Global fashion retailers say the tragedy prompted them to work together more closely to protect workers and ensure the safety of buildings. Some countries have introduced laws to make the supply chain more transparent.


Smoke billows as an area of the Amazon rainforest is burnt to clear land for agriculture near Novo Progresso
The Wider Image: Earthprints: Rio Pardo Ka'apor Indian warriors tie up loggers during a jungle expedition in the Alto Turiacu Indian territory

The destruction of Brazil’s Amazon forest, the world’s largest intact rainforest, increased by 16% in 2015 as the government struggled to enforce legislation and stop illegal clearings in a region the size of Western Europe.

The government considers illegal logging the main factor behind the deforestation of the Amazon region, with about 5,000km2 of rainforest destroyed every year.

Illegal logging relies on corruption and could not occur without some form of consent from government officials responsible for protecting forests, according to a report by the United Nations and Interpol. The report estimates 15 – 30% of wood traded globally has been obtained illegally.

Deforestation makes up to around 17% of the world’s heat-trapping gases, more than the entire transport sector. Besides being a giant carbon sink, the Amazon is a biodiversity sanctuary, holding myriad species yet to be studied.

Tianjin explosions

Rescue workers wearing chemical protective suits walk at the site of the explosions at the Binhai new district in Tianjin
A resident evacuated from her home after last week's explosions at Binhai new district, shows pictures at a rally demanding government compensation in Tianjin An employee of the company based at the site of huge explosion at the port in Tianjin, China, shows a picture of her missing colleague to officials at the hospital who are assisting friends and families of injured

Chemical blasts in the Chinese port city of Tianjin killed 165 people in 2015. The government put the losses in the 10th busiest port in the world at more than $1 billion.

An official report on the disaster blamed the ignition of hazardous materials which had been improperly or illegally stored on site. Company executives also said they used their connections to get fire safety and environmental approvals through unofficial channels.

Anger over safety standards is growing in China, after three decades of swift economic growth marred by incidents from mining disasters to factory fires. President Xi Jinping has vowed that authorities will learn lessons.

Volkswagen, Toshiba and FIFA

Michael Horn, President and CEO of Volkswagen America, reacts to being mobbed by the media after he apologized for the Volkswagen diesel scandal at the LA Auto Show in Los Angeles

Toshiba Corp President and Chief Executive Officer Hisao Tanaka (C) bows upon his arrival at a news conference at the company headquarters in Tokyo July 21, 2015.

Volkswagen admitted in 2015 that about 11 million of its cars worldwide were fitted with software to cheat diesel emissions tests that are designed to limit car fumes blamed for respiratory diseases and global pollution.

In 2015, Toshiba was found to have inflated its earnings by around $1.2 billion over several years. It was Japan’s biggest accounting scandal since Olympus Corp in 2011.

FIFA was thrown into crisis by U.S. investigations into alleged widespread financial wrongdoing stretching back more than two decades. Sepp Blatter, who had led soccer’s world governing body since 1998, was banned from soccer activities for ethics violations in December.

Political corruption in Guatemala

Supporters hold a poster of Guatemalan presidential candidate Jimmy Morales during a political rally in downtown Guatemala City

Guatemala's former President Otto Perez speaks during an interview with Reuters at the Matamoros Army Base where he is being held awaiting trial, in Guatemala City, October 24, 2015.

Jimmy Morales, a former TV comedian, was carried to the presidency of Guatemala in 2015 on a wave of public anger over political corruption uncovered by the International Commission against Impunity in Guatemala.

Set up to deal with paramilitary gangs in 2007, the CICIG went from being an obscure, forgotten office of the United Nations to a force that ousted President Otto Perez.

Information gleaned from the cell phone of a Chinese businessman caught up in a prior customs fraud was used to untangle a scheme where importers paid bribes to avoid customs duties. According to the CICIG, the scam led all the way to Perez and his vice president, Roxana Baldetti. In September 2015, Perez was ordered to stand trial for corruption.

Iguala mass kidnapping

Women embrace in the house of Alexander Mora Venancio, one of the 43 missing students of Ayotzinapa Teacher Training College Raul Isidro Burgo, in El Pericon, in the southern Mexican state of Guerrero, December 11, 2014.
Words are spray-painted on a door after CETEG (State Coordinator of Teachers of Guerrero) members forcibly occupied the offices of the Secretary of Education, during a protest against the upcoming July legislative elections and in support of the missing 43 trainee teachers from Ayotzinapa teachers' training college, in Chilpancingo, Guerrero January 7, 2015. A girl points at photographs of missing students from the Ayotzinapa teachers' training college, attached at a wall surrounding the General Attorney's Office in Ciudad Juarez, October 23, 2014.

43 student teachers went missing from the southwestern Mexican city of Iguala in 2014 after clashing with local police. Their abduction caused an international uproar over human rights abuses in Mexico.

The government originally said the students were detained by corrupt local police, handed over to a drug gang, and incinerated in a rubbish dump before their ashes were thrown into a river.

But a panel of international experts rejected the notion that all the students’ bodies were burned at the dump, saying the investigation was full of holes.

So far, the remains of only one of the missing students has been positively identified and the whereabouts of the rest remain a mystery.

Public sector corruption

Displaced Somali families help push a pick-up truck carrying personal belongings from a camp which was closed down early morning by Somali forces, leaving hundreds of families without shelter, in capital Mogadishu March 4, 2015.

More than 6 billion people live in countries where serious levels of public sector corruption are fueling inequality and exploitation, according to Transparency International’s 2015 index of perceived public sector corruption.

The group’s annual report measures perceptions of corruption due to the secrecy surrounding most corrupt dealings.

Two thirds of the 168 countries assessed were identified as having a serious corruption problem. Somalia, which has been mired in conflict since civil war broke out in 1991, ranks bottom of the list.

Europe’s migrant crisis

An overcrowded inflatable boat with Syrian refugees drifts in the Aegean sea between Turkey and Greece after its motor broke down off the Greek island of Kos, August 11, 2015.
The body of an unidentified migrant is seen on a beach after being washed ashore, on the Greek island of Lesbos, November 7, 2015. A Syrian refugee holds onto his children as he struggles to walk off a dinghy on the Greek island of Lesbos, after crossing a part of the Aegean Sea from Turkey to Lesbos September 24, 2015.

Last year a record 1 million people made the Mediterranean Sea crossing, five times more than in 2014. During the year, the International Organization for Migration estimates that 805 died in the eastern Mediterranean and 2,892 died in the central Mediterranean.

Human brokers play the central role in many migrants’ journeys. Like the thousands of Central Americans who pour into the United States, or the Rohingya Burmese who flood into Thailand and Malaysia, illegal travellers worldwide depend on an industry run by networks of individual criminal entrepreneurs.

Syrians desperate to leave their homeland after years of civil war are forced to pay hefty bribes at armed checkpoints proliferating along Syria’s borders, or to smugglers, according to the United Nations.

Europol, Europe’s police agency, says people-smuggling may have generated between $3 billion and $6 billion last year. Most of the money for passage is raised and transferred by migrants’ and refugees’ relatives around the world.

Horsemeat scandal

Horses stand inside and outside a truck during early morning hours at Skaryszew horse fair February 18, 2013.

Butcher Sean Basey works behind a "no horsemeat" sign at Bates Butchers in Market Harborough, central England, February 20, 2013.

The horsemeat scandal broke in 2013 after genetic tests found traces of horsemeat in burgers sold at British and Irish supermarkets. Adulterated beef products were discovered across Europe, with suppliers in France and the Netherlands also found to have mislabelled horsemeat.

France found more cases of illegal horsemeat in beef products than any other country, results of official DNA tests showed, with more than 1 in every 8 samples testing positive.

Unidentified criminal gangs are believed to have made huge profits by substituting millions of tons of cheap horsemeat for more expensive beef. The scandal raised major concerns over how we monitor supply chains and the resources available to investigate food crime.

Panama papers

Workers stand in front of a general view of Panama City April 6, 2016. REUTERS/Carlos Jasso - RTSDWX0

More than 11.5 million documents leaked from Panamanian law firm Mossack Fonseca cast light on the finances of an array of politicians and public figures and the institutions they use.

Several governments launched investigations after the leak of documents from the firm, which specialises in setting up offshore companies.

The papers have fuelled public anger that the rich and powerful are able to avoid taxes while many people suffer austerity and hardship.

The leaks have revealed financial arrangements of prominent figures, including friends of Russian President Vladimir Putin, relatives of the prime ministers of Britain and Pakistan and of China’s President Xi Jinping, and the president of Ukraine.

2007-08 Kenyan crisis

Police detain an alleged protester in the outskirts of Kano, April 23, 2007.
Two children stand together as heavy rain falls at a temporary shelter for around 19,000 displaced people during post-election violence in Eldoret February 7, 2008. A wounded man walks during protests staged by opposition supporters in Nairobi's Kibera slum, December 30, 2007.

The 2007 presidential vote in Kenya, when incumbent President Mwai Kibaki was declared victor, erupted into bloodletting that drove 350,000 people from their homes. It was disputed by opponents.

More than 1,200 people were slaughtered, many butchered by machete, burnt alive or shot with bows and arrows as the country’s biggest tribes turned on one another. Previous votes in Kenya have also been dogged by “ghost” voters, stuffed ballot boxes and rigging at the final tally.

As well as tribal friction, corruption is frequently a factor in conflict – although this has decreased since 2010, according to a Transparency International survey. In 2010, 45% of Kenyans reported paying a bribe, the survey showed.

Women from communities in Rivers state protest against irregularities in voting in the weekend's election, at Port Harcourt

Nigerian President Muhammadu Buhari was elected in 2015 after campaigning on a promise to clamp down on the endemic corruption that has left many in Africa’s biggest economy mired in poverty despite its enormous energy wealth.

True to his election promises, Buhari has gone all out on corruption, alleging mind-boggling sums plundered from state coffers and giving investigators licence to pull in big hitters once thought untouchable.

The People’s Democratic Party, ousted after dominating politics since military rule ended in 1999, has accused its successor of conducting a witch-hunt.

Buhari has urged the World Bank to assist in the repatriation of $320 million stolen by former military leader Sani Abacha, which is being held by authorities in Switzerland, his office said in a statement in April.

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